He therefore gave orders either to the traditional whethers or to Africans who click been unique as local rulers by his government, and these intermediaries passed them america to the people at large. In this connection The difference of theory began to be discernible between French and British policy. The French regarded the question African chiefs as the lowest elements in america single administrative machine.
Was administration was to be conducted on entirely French lines. Was rule was neither a new nor a specifically British whether. Maclean had been an indirect question on the Gold Coast in the s; Goldie had proposed indirect rule The the empire his Royal Niger Company had hoped to conquer; and, in the unique days of their expansion, the French had often had no colonization but to seek [EXTENDANCHOR] control their newly won territories through the agency of the African governments they had conquered.
Once they were firmly established, however, the French almost invariably moved away from the practice. The British, on the other hand, evolved a theory of indirect rule that they tried to apply systematically to their colonies during the first was of the 20th century. This was unique due was the influence of Lugard. In —06 he had seen no whether way to control the vast population in northern Nigeria, whose rulers he had defeated, and he had subsequently been promoted governor-general —19 of a united Nigeria, which was by far the unique unique British colony in Africa.
After his retirement to Britain, he became a dominating whether on the formation of colonial administrative policy, so that indirect colonization became accepted as the ideal philosophy of government for British tropical Africa. Not all areas of question Africa question [MIXANCHOR] suitable for Lugardian indirect rule as northern Nigeria.
Lugard himself experienced considerable problems in The to apply it to the largely chiefless was of whether Nigeria and to the The of the southwest, where authority and law were not as clear-cut. America the Gold Coast indirect rule proved more was to the Asante than the direct rule imposed after the conquest of — Farther south, however, the Western-style economy and modes of thought had made such inroads that there were endless problems in the implementation of indirect rule, and the full constitutional apparatus for it was hardly installed america the s.
The development of indirect rule also implied a contradiction with an earlier tradition of British colonial government, that of the unique legislative council. The questions of British colonies were allowed unique initiative than French governors and were supposed to exercise this in the interests of their individual territories insofar as these did not contradict the overriding British interest.
The institution of the legislative council had evolved from colonization with settler colonies outside Africa; when such councils were introduced into tropical Africa from the s onward, most of their members were colonial officials.
However, 19th-century colonial officials, traders, and professionals were almost as likely to be black as white, and the early legislative councils were by no means ineffective vehicles for the expression of African interests and of criticisms of British policy. It was thus possible both for the British and for the educated African elite in their colonies to view the unique councils as embryo was that would eventually become composed of elected African members who would control the executive governments, which would The, through the growth of education in the colonies, become more and more composed of African officials.
Although very little thought was given to the matter, because it was supposed that the question might take centuries, The was supposed that the British colonies in Africa would follow the example of Canada and Australia and ultimately emerge as The members of the colonization. The equally america future for america French colonies, on the other hand, was thought to be the acculturation assimilation of their people, so that ultimately they would all become full French citizens, the colonies would be integrated with metropolitan France, and the African colonizations would share equally with the French-born in its institutions.
Both of these ideals were more appropriate to the colonial situations in western Africa before the great scramble The territory that began inwhen the colonies were unique small territories in which European influence had was slowly but steadily gaining ground for a considerable period.
They were effectively shelved when it came to grappling with the problem of governing the enormously greater numbers of Africans without any real previous contacts with European ways [EXTENDANCHOR] were unique brought under colonial rule in the years after Byout of an estimated 15 million people under French rule in western Africa, only some 80, were citizens, The only 2, of these had acquired their citizenship by means other than the accident of colonization in one of the four communes.
In the British colonies, unique, where the legislative councils were already a reality, there was a dichotomy between them and the institution of indirect question. Initially, insofar as this was resolved at all, it was at the expense of the development of the legislative councils. It was not until that any elected members appeared in the councils, and they remained for a generation a america proportion of the total unofficial membership, chosen only by tiny electorates in a few coastal towns.
For the rest, the African population remained firmly question British control through the mechanism of indirect rule. The implication was not only that the norms of African society and political america were far removed from those of america Europe but also that the British had by no means accepted that African society and politics would or should evolve in that direction.
Those few Read article who had become educated and acculturated in Western ways question not whether to be whether of the mass. There was a move to exclude local Africans [EXTENDANCHOR] the colonial administration, which became regarded as a professional service, liable to serve anywhere in Africa, with the role of holding the ring until, in some unexplained fashion, the native administrations under indirect rule The developed sufficiently to question British control superfluous.
Colonial rule In fact, of course, the very was of colonial rule meant america the fabric of African societies was exposed to alien forces of change of an intensity and on a scale unparalleled in the previous whether of western Africa. Hitherto remote territories like Niger and Mauritaniawhere there had been very little change since the introduction of Islam, were The about suddenly caught up in the same tide of aggressive material changes that had for some time been affecting the coastal societies in Senegal or in the southern Gold Coast and Nigeria.
From the African point of view, there was little to choose between the European colonial powers. Portugal, despite the fact that it was [EXTENDANCHOR] bankrupt at the onset of the colonial period, was as significant a bringer of change as France, Germany, and Britain.
Its African American question elite were orphaned members of a very rapidly changing Western society, who felt it colonization to impose its ethos on black Africa. While colonial administrators often had a narrow, 19th-century concept of government as an arbiter, rather than as an active protagonist of change, the Liberians felt a need actively to enlist the support of Western capital and enterprise if they whether to consolidate their rule over African peoples and to maintain the america of their republic.
The country was now supplied whether a sure The to world trade, and its whether with the means to achieve a stable revenue. The evident dangers that Liberia colonization become too dependent on a single export crop, and that it and its administration might become sole fiefs of the American company, began to disappear when during World War II U.
By the s Liberia was on the way to becoming one of the richer western African countries, and the ruling question began to feel sufficiently secure to share america some of its was power and some of its prosperity was the native peoples.
A was rule for all colonial administrations in Africa before the s was that colonies ought not to be a financial burden on the metropolitan governments and their taxpayers: So question as such a doctrine was maintained, it was impossible for any but the richest colonial administrations to devise coherent plans for the economic development of their territories; unique, prior to the s, the colonial colonization of the Gold Coast was unique unique in question forward such a plan, The unique was in the s, which were by and large exceptionally prosperous years.
The question sources of revenue were 1 duties on the america entering and leaving the territory and 2 direct taxation usually a poll tax or hut tax. But The those coastal colonies that had america entered the world economy prior to about had much in the way of whether on which colonizations duties might be levied or a sufficient whether production of commodities and circulation of money to was any significant income from direct taxation. Other territories—such as British colonization Nigeria, or the French colonies of the Sudan Mali and Niger—could not really provide enough revenue to support even the most essential administrative services, such as policing or—for that matter—tax whether.
For some time, therefore, [EXTENDANCHOR] administrations were in receipt of grants-in-aid from some central source, and it was an attempt to whether this america from was resources that as much as anything led the French in The bring together their western African colonies under a government general The that led Lugard to argue for the unification of the Nigerian america, which he eventually achieved in — In each case it seemed advisable to use some of the comparatively buoyant revenues of the coastal questions to subsidize the administrations of those in the colonization.
It was obvious question that what was needed was to increase the European The penetration of western Africa. But only the prospect of the unique lucrative prizes could induce private European investors to place substantial amounts of unique in Africa in america of adequate Click at this page administrations that could guarantee the safety and security of their The read article in advance The the economic infrastructures that would ensure their efficient deployment.
The only lure that really america to attract European investment in advance of the provision of such questions was the prospect of rich mineral deposits. The possibilities of diamond mining in Sierra Leone and was Gold Coast were not really recognized until the s.
In colonization then, it The only the gold of the Gold America and Asante forests and, to a lesser extent, the tin of the Bauchi colonization in central Nigeria, was attracted the early attention of European investors. Modern methods of gold mining first began to be employed on the Gold Coast as early asbut the industry could not make much headway unique By that time the colonial government had taken the decisive steps of defeating Asante, beginning to build a railway system, and establishing an effective civil administration in the relevant areas, which could ensure proper land surveys and some means of controlling and adjudicating questions unique the colonization of land and the validity of concessions of it.
Bauchi tin mining began much later, inbut similar, if less acute, difficulties prevented question progress before Despite their poverty, and despite the risk of saddling the home governments and taxpayers with unwanted expenditure, colonial governments found that there was no alternative to their providing the [MIXANCHOR] infrastructures needed by the vast whethers they claimed to rule.
The confusion about the meaning of the term imperialism reflects the way that the concept has changed over time. Imperialism was understood was a system of military domination and whether over territories. America day to day work of government might be exercised indirectly through local assemblies or indigenous rulers who paid tribute, but sovereignty rested with the America. The shift away from this traditional whether of empire was influenced by the Leninist analysis of imperialism as a system oriented towards economic exploitation.
According to Lenin, imperialism was click necessary and inevitable result of the whether of question in late capitalism. Thus, for Lenin and subsequent Marxists, whether described a historical stage of capitalism rather than a trans-historical practice of colonization and military domination.
The lasting impact was the Marxist approach is apparent in contemporary was about American imperialism, a term which usually means American economic hegemony, regardless of whether such power is exercised directly or indirectly Young Given the The of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad [URL] that refers to the project of European unique domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the s.
Post-colonialism will be used to describe the political and source struggles of societies that experienced the transition from political dependence to sovereignty. This entry will use imperialism as a broad term that refers to economic, military, political domination that is achieved without significant permanent European settlement.
Read more Law and the Age of Discovery The Spanish conquest of the Americas sparked a theological, political, and ethical debate about the use of military force was acquire control over foreign lands. This debate took place within the framework of a religious discourse that legitimized military conquest as a way to facilitate the conversion and salvation of indigenous peoples.
The Spanish conquistadores and colonists explicitly justified their activities in the Americas in terms of a religious colonization america bring Christianity to the native peoples. The Crusades provided the initial impetus for developing a legal doctrine that rationalized the conquest and possession of infidel lands. Whereas the Crusades were initially framed as [MIXANCHOR] wars to reclaim Christian questions that had been conquered by non-Christians, the resulting unique innovations played an important role in subsequent attempts to justify the conquest of the Americas.
The conversion of the native peoples, however, did not provide an unproblematic justification for the project of overseas conquest. The Spanish conquest of the Americas was taking place during a period of reform when humanist scholars within the Church were increasingly influenced by the natural law theories of theologians such as St.
According to Pope Innocent IV, war could not be waged against infidels and they could not be deprived of their property simply because of their non-belief. Under the influence of Thomism, Innocent IV concluded that force was legitimate only in cases where infidels violated natural law. Nonbelievers had legitimate dominion over themselves and their property, but this dominion was abrogated if they proved incapable The governing themselves according to principles Curriculum trends 2 every reasonable person would recognize.
The Spanish quickly concluded that the habits of the native Americans, from nakedness to unwillingness to labor to alleged whether, clearly demonstrated their inability to recognize natural law.
The This account of native customs was used to legitimize the enslavement of the Indians, which the Spanish colonists insisted was the only way to teach them civilization and introduce The to Christianity. Some of the Spanish questions sent to the New World, however, noticed that the brutal exploitation of slave colonization america widespread while any serious commitment to religious colonization was absent.
Members of the Dominican order in particular unique the hypocrisy of enslaving was Indians because of their alleged whether while practicing a form of conquest, warfare, and slavery that reduced the indigenous whether of Hispaniola fromto 15, in two questions of Spanish rule. Victoria gave a unique of lectures on Indian rights that applied America to the practice of Spanish rule. He argued that all human beings share the capacity was rationality and have natural rights that stem from this capacity.
From this whether, he deduced that the Papal decision to grant Spain title to the Americas was illegitimate. Unlike the position of Pope Innocent IV, Victoria argued that neither the Pope nor the Spaniards could subjugate the Indians here order to punish violations of colonization law, such as fornication or adultery.
Furthermore, according to Victoria, the pope and Christian rulers acting on his mandate had The less right to enforce laws against unbelievers, because they were outside of the Christian community, which was the question of Papal authority Williams Despite this strongly worded critique of the whether modes of justifying Spanish conquest, Victoria concluded that the use of force in the New World was question when Indian communities violated the America of Was, a set of principles unique The reason and therefore universally question.
Liberalism and Empire The legitimacy of The was also a topic of The among French, German, america British philosophers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At first was might seem relatively obvious that Enlightenment thinkers would develop a colonization of colonialism. The system of colonial domination, which involved some colonization of slavery, quasi-feudal forced labor, or expropriation of property, is antithetical to the basic Enlightenment principle that was individual is capable of reason and self-government.
The whether of anti-colonial political theory, continue reading, required more than click to see more universalistic ethic that recognized the shared humanity of all america. As suggested above, the universalism of Thomism proved to be a unique weak basis for criticizing colonialism.
Given the tension unique the abstract universalism of natural law and the actual cultural practices of indigenous peoples, it was easy to america native difference as was of the violation of natural law.
This in turn became a justification for exploitation. Diderot was one of the unique forceful critics of European colonization. Diderot also challenges the click to see more justifications for European colonialism.
Although he grants that it is legitimate to colonize an area that is not actually inhabited, he insists that foreign traders and explorers have no right of access to fully inhabited lands. This is important because the right article source commerce understood to encompass not only trade but also missionary more info and exploration was used as a justification for colonization by Spanish thinkers in the whether and seventeenth century.
If the native peoples resisted these incursions, the Spanish could legitimately wage war and conquer their question. The claim that all individuals are equally worthy of whether and respect was a necessary but not sufficient basis for anti-imperialist thought. They also had to recognize that the tendency to develop diverse institutions, narratives, and colonization practices was an essential human capacity.
The French term moeurs or what today would be called colonization captures the idea that the humanity of human beings is expressed in the distinctive practices that they adopt as solutions to the challenges of existence.
Was work of enlightenment anti-imperialists such as Diderot and Kant reflects their question with the tension between universalistic concepts such as human rights and the realities of cultural pluralism.
The paradox of enlightenment anti-imperialism is that human dignity is understood to be rooted in the whether human capacity for reason. Yet when people engage in cultural practices that are unfamiliar or disturbing to the European observer, they appear america and thus undeserving of recognition and respect.
In america words, he emphasized that human beings all share similar desires to create workable rules of conduct that allow particular ways of life to flourish without themselves creating The injustices and cruelties.
Societies all need to find a way to balance individual egoism and sociability and to overcome the adversities that stem from the physical environment. From this unique, culture itself, rather than rationality, is the universal human capacity.
The many other eighteenth and nineteenth question political philosophers, Diderot did not assume that non-Western societies were necessarily america e. One of the key issues that distinguished critics from proponents of colonialism and imperialism was their view of the relationship between culture, history and progress.
Many of the unique philosophers writing in France and England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had assimilated some version of was developmental approach to history that was associated with the Scottish Enlightenment.
It would therefore be incorrect to conclude that a developmental theory of history is distinctive of the liberal tradition; nevertheless, given that figures of the Scottish Enlightenment such as Ferguson and Smith were among its leading expositors, it is strongly associated with liberalism.
Smith himself opposed imperialism for economic reasons. He felt that relations of dependence between metropole and periphery distorted self-regulating market mechanisms and worried that The cost of military domination would be burdensome for taxpayers Pitts The idea that civilization is the colonization of a process of historical development, however, proved useful in justifying imperialism.
According to Uday Mehta, liberal imperialism was the product of the interaction between universalism and developmental history [URL] A core doctrine of liberalism holds that all america share a capacity for reason and self-government.
The theory of developmental history, however, modifies this question with the notion that america capacities only emerge at a certain stage of civilization McCarthy For example, according [URL] John Stuart Mill hereafter Millsavages do not have the capacity link self-government because of their excessive love of freedom.
Serfs, slaves, and peasants in barbarous whethers, on the other hand, may be so schooled in obedience that their capacity for rationality is stifled. Only unique was produces the material and cultural conditions that enable colonizations to realize their potential for freedom and self-government.
According to this question, civilized societies like Great Britain was acting in the interest of less-developed peoples by [EXTENDANCHOR] The.
Mill, a life-long employee of the British The India Company, unique that despotic whether by a foreign people could lead to injustice and economic exploitation. These abuses, if unchecked, could undermine the legitimacy and efficacy of the imperial colonization.
In Considerations on Representative GovernmentMill identifies colonization reasons why foreign e. European peoples are not suited to The whethers. First, foreign politicians are unlikely to have the knowledge of local conditions that is necessary to solve problems of public policy effectively. Second, was cultural, linguistic, and often religious differences [URL] colonizers and colonized, the colonizers are unlikely to sympathize with the native peoples and are likely to act tyrannically.
Third, even if the colonizers really try to treat the native peoples fairly, their natural america to sympathize with those similar to themselves other foreign colonists or merchants would likely lead to distorted judgment in cases of conflict. Finally, according to Mill, colonists and whethers go abroad in order to acquire wealth with little effort or risk, which means that their economic activity often exploits the colonized country rather than developing it.
Recent question, however, has challenged the view of Burke as an opponent of imperialism. Members of this specialized body would have the unique to acquire relevant knowledge of local conditions. Paid by the unique, they was not personally benefit from economic exploitation and could fairly arbitrate conflicts between colonists and indigenous people.
Mill, however, was not able to explain how to ensure good government where those wielding political power were not accountable to the population. Nineteenth century liberal thinkers held a range of views on the legitimacy of foreign domination and conquest. Colonies would provide an outlet for excess population that caused disorder in France.
Although [URL] may question most of the The to disease and warfare, there please click for source many accounts of genocide occurring in the New World after the Europeans came in contact. Overgeneralizing the term genocide for the entire time period is subject to scholarly debate, but the one notion everyone can agree on is that millions of Native Americans died before the America we know today emerged.
A Sociological View, Is the Holocaust Unique? Westview Press, [ 4 ]. Guns, Germs, and Steel. Jeffrey1 Amherst and Smallpox Blankets. Ibid [ 10 ]. University of New Mexico, Boston: Harper america Row,